This review outlines and discusses the current and emerging trends in suture technology including knotless barbed sutures, antimicrobial sutures, bio-active sutures such as drug-eluting and stem cells seeded sutures, and smart sutures including elastic and electronic sutures. simple sutures are placed in succession without tying or cutting the suture material after each pass. Review methods: Two out of four RCTs showed a significant benefit of the implant in a reduction in superficial and deep SWIs in routine and emergency cardiac surgery. Suture materials and subsequent,          ,           ,     ,       , Setzen G, Willams EF. (�� This systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Purpose: To determine the effect of axial torsional forces on sutures used in abdominal closure. �F�(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��*9e��Y]R5,� P���q�[9f{]��[�_���b%?�Hx^j1���Y�Q�`ѭ��XX ��2��U���G2���_�XE��^Am��p���n_h&C�o5I��Y��4�� It is the copolymer of glycolic acid and lactic acid and it is coated with calcium stearate. In most cases, three weeks is sufficient for the wound to close firmly. Mattress sutures a. Those who had nylon sutures as opposed to PGA sutures were 9.5 times more likely to experience wound infection (p=0.055). Tensile strength, tissue reaction and capability to be absorbed are other important characteristics of the suture material. (�� The selection of the type of suture depends on the tissue and anatomical location. The key findings are that positive aspects of caregiving among family caregivers of dementia patients form a multi-dimensional construct which covers four key domains: a sense of personal accomplishment and gratification, feelings of mutuality in a dyadic relationship, an increase of family cohesion and functionality, and a sense of personal growth and purpose in life. Read PDF Guide To Sutures Guide To Sutures Right here, we have countless ebook guide to sutures and collections to check out. PROCEDURES Skin specimens were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia and tested within 6 hours after harvest. We conclude that most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed with gentamicin-collagen sponges for sternal closure. La stérilisation est faite soit par irradiation, thermiquement ou chimiquement. Concerns were raised that gentamicin sponges dipped in saline 1-2 s prior to application may have lost the gentamicin into the saline, thereby reducing their efficacy and that some surgeons may have been unfamiliar with wound closure with sponges. cluded needle types, 35 used curved needles and 10 straight needles. The primary mode of failure for the simple interrupted pattern was suture breakage, whereas that for the cruciate, intradermal, and subdermal patterns was tissue failure. In the future, prospective studies with standardized methods of assessing quality of life and with longer follow-up times would be desirable. pdf. The average number of epithelial layers (2.93 vs 4.42; P < .001), the average thickness of papillary projection (0.80 mm vs 1.28 mm; P < .001), and the average thickness of submucosal fibrosis (0.34 mm vs 0.49 mm ; P < .001) were significantly increased in group B versus group A. The physical configuration of a suture describes whether it is monofilamentous (Prolene or Ethilon) or multifilamentous (silk). The use of locking sutures increases the tensile strength to values that may allow protective mobilization in children. Results: However, two-knot 3-0 looped suture constructs did resist the force generally accepted as occurring with early non-resistive tendon motion protocols, while two-knot 4-0 looped suture constructs did not. A total of seven papers met the a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review. One RCT showed that gentamicin sponges may cause increased sternal rebleeding if used in double layers. , is unpredictable. Data quality from all In this technique the suture is secured with an initial knot and successive tissue bites are taken. The effect of excessive twisting on the mechanical properties of sutures is a previously unrecognised phenomenon. Other factors influencing wound infection rates included: rupture of membranes >12 hours were 13.7 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9 - 47.9, p. OBJECTIVE To compare suture placement time, tension at skin separation and suture line failure, and mode of failure among 4 suture patterns. Comparing the tensile strengths of 3 suture techniques. There was no difference in respect of number of patients, age, parity and gestation between the study groups. Knowledge), and the resulting references were managed by using the open-source reference tool DistillerSR© systematic review software. $4�%�&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz�������������������������������������������������������������������������� ? Actuellement, la plupart des sutures sont faites avec du fil synthétique depuis l'interdiction du catgut à la fin du XXe siècle à la suite de la crise de la vache folle. PDO biodegradable stents were placed in the proximal and distal urethra of nine male mongrel dogs. Objectives: (�� However, the most recent multicentre RCT conducted on 1052 patients showed no benefit of gentamicin-collagen sponges in elective surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery) in high-risk patients with diabetes, obesity or both. They can be further sub-classified into synthetic or natural sutures, and monofilament or multifilament sutures. Non-Absorbable sutures include :- Polypropylene sutures, Nylon (poylamide), Polyester, PVDF, silk and stainless steel sutures. Gentamicin resistance among common pathogens causing SWIs can vary from 15 to 80%. Polyglactin 910: It is available in braided form. Based on Timing. Synthetic sutures are made from a variety of textiles such as nylon or polyester, formulated specifically for surgical use. NATURAL SUTURE MATERIALS Natural sutures are made from animal or plant materials. This suture can be supplied in an antibiotic form by impregnating with triclosan. All of the studies were judged to be at moderate to high risk of bias. It has drawbacks like poor knot security and poor stability in alkaline environment. The ideal suture is the smallest possible to produce uniform tensile strength, securely hold the wound for the required time for healing, then be absorbed. Sutures can be divided into absorbable sutures, non absorbable sutures, mono filament, multi filament, natural and synthetic sutures according to their type of material, raw material used, absoprtion nature. Within the constraints of this model, a looped suture fared worse than a non-looped suture especially when comparing 4-0 and 3-0 sutures. >> Natural suture materials include silk, linen, and catgut, which is actually the dried and treated intestine of a cow or sheep. The luminal diameter of the stent-implanted urethra was assessed by follow-up retrograde urethrography, and histologic findings were obtained after the dogs were killed. All cross-sectional, cohort studies and case-control studies reporting on the prevalence, incidence, etiologies, treatment, prognosis, admission rates, mortality, and economic burden of HF in pediatric populations in LMICs will be included in the review. SAMPLE 60 skin specimens from the pelvic limbs of 30 purpose-bred Beagles. Their protein composition can elicit the most The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. SMI: Surgical sutures of the highest quality SMI AG was established in 1987 - the first Belgian company manufacturing surgical sutures - since then it has grown continuously. In group II (n=10 tendons), simple locking sutures were added to the corners of 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures. Some sutures are double-armed; they are armed with two needles, one at each end of the thread. Percentage of skin apposition did not differ among the 4 patterns. A continuous running suture is the preferential method for abdominal closure. Surgeons should be aware that this can result in a decrease in suture strength and reduce the elasticity of the material, and therefore need to adapt their practice to reduce the torsional force placed on sutures. /Length 25027 RESULTS: A total of 1 100 women was assigned randomly into 3 groups: polyglycolic acid (PGA) suture group (N=361), skin staple (SS) group (N=373) and nylon suture group (N=366). In group I (n=10 tendons), 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures were applied. The dogs were euthanized 4 weeks (group A; n = 3), 8 weeks (group B; n = 3), or 12 weeks (group C; n = 3) after stent placement. Neste mesmo The mechanical profile of the three types of sutures estudo, Urbaniack et al (16) demonstraram que em humanos, analyzed was similar, depending on the number of stitches, a flexão ativa dos dedos contra uma resistência moderada the type and number of knots and the kind of line used. The available studies are heterogeneous in design. �� � } !1AQa"q2���#B��R��$3br� Sutures that only have one thread are called monofilament. We utilized 30 flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a width of 4 mm. An experimental study in a canine urethral model has demonstrated acceptable inflammatory reaction with gradually increasing granulation tissue but no luminal obstruction within 12 weeks. The residual tensile strength of a polyglactin 910[4] suture is consistently greater than that of polyglycolic acid suture. Given the importance of surgery within the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology it is crucial to understand the process of wound healing and the suture available to surgical repair. All tendon repairs were tested to single-cycle tensile failure. Broadly, sutures can be classified into absorbable or non-absorbable materials. We additionally meet the expense of variant types and also type of the books to browse. Most papers answered data quality questions well, with the exception of the justification of the sample size, which was only correctly addressed in a reduced number of articles (<10%). An overall summary estimate of prevalence/incidence of pediatric HF across studies will be obtained from study-specific estimates pooled through a random-effect model. /Type /XObject The third trial on 542 patients showed no benefit of the implant, but was not adequately powered. Sutures are made from both man-made and natural materials. Needles are made of stainless steel alloy, which allows, to a certain extent, bending without breaking. Elles favorisent l’hémostase locale, renforcent les sutures et assurent l’adhésion tissulaire. These differences between sutures may impact choices for a suture type selected for these repairs. These studies were conducted with surgical sutures of various types, including absorbable, non-absorbable, monofilament and braided materials [19,20], such as Vircyl, silk, and catgut, providing evidence of the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential The effect of axial twisting on polydioxanone (PDS*II), polyglactin (Vicryl), polypropylene (Prolene) and nylon (Ethilon) sutures was investigated using a uniaxial testing device. The customary book, fiction, history, novel, scientific research, as well as various new sorts of books are readily clear here. sutures and it has good suture handling characteristics. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure did not differ significantly between the intradermal and subdermal patterns or the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns. DESIGN Randomized trial. Independent sling suture 2. The ELS process is based on several consecutive screening steps to accurately select articles which comply with the inclusion criteria. Types The choice of continuous suture depends on the operator’s preference. Flexor tendon repair in zone II remains a vexing problem. Synthetic Absorbable Sutures: Braided filaments - polyglycolic acid (P.G.A), PGA is absorbed by hydrolysis (hydrophobic), good tensile strength (resist muscle pull), bacterial growth inhibition, mild tissue reaction, and resorption rate from 21 to 28 days. /BitsPerComponent 8 Searches were undertaken using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science up to and including May, 2016 to identify potential studies. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure for the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns were significantly higher than those for the intradermal and subdermal patterns. A comparative in-vitro experimental study conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2014 to December 2015. Les fils de sutures . There are many different types of sutures, with the most commonly used one called the interrupted suture. These single-thread sutures easily pass through the skin. A randomised controlled trial on suture materials for skin closure at caesarean section: Do wound infection rates differ? Classification of Sutures Absorbable al tic Silk Natural tic Nylon Propylene Polyester SS Titanium al tic Plain Gut Chromic Gut Vicryl PDS Non-Absorbable Systematic review registration: In group III (n=10 tendons), the locked cruciate repair was used. Monofilament vs Multifilament. Conclusion: Methods: In general terms, the ELS protocol allowed retrieving a high number of manuscripts from the most commonly used databases, performing an accurate selection of articles, and therefore accomplishing with the aims of the study. The key instruments and materials used for intraoral suturing are presented. databases (i.e., PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Tissue response to suture materials,     . By integrating the findings about the nature and conditions predicting positive aspects of caregiving, the presence of three conditions was identified as promoting the emergence of such qualities i) personal and social affirmation of role fulfilment, ii) effective cognitive emotional regulation and iii) contexts which favour finding meaning in the caregiving process. (�� incidence, etiologies, treatment, and outcomes including hospital admission and mortality and economic burden of HF in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents in LMICs. There was no significant difference between groups II and III with regards to gap and breaking forces; and all forces of these 2 groups were significantly higher than the forces in group I. To investigate the tensile strength of repaired flexor profundus tendons in young lambs, which would be equivalent to repairs in children older than 2 years of age. Surgical sutures are used to facilitate closure and healing of surgical- or trauma-induced wounds by upholding tissues together to facilitate healing process. The findings of the studies permit the conclusion that sex reassignment surgery beneficially affects emotional well- being, sexuality, and quality of life in general. Molecular weight losses were 54% in group A and 84% in group B. The number of trans women in each study ranged from 3 to 247. Different types of sutures available for a wide variety of surgeries based on absorption, braiding structure, dyeing and coating materials. Gentamicin-collagen is unlikely to reduce SWIs in high-risk patients and polymicrobial infections. a systematic literature search that was carried out in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases in March 2017. /Width 420 - Support de Cours (Version PDF) - Figure 21 : Propriétés du Gore-Tex II LES COLLES CHIRURGICALES Elles ont pour but de suturer de façon simple et atraumatique. Pour télécharger : CLIQUEZ ICI. references was assessed by means of responding a brief questionnaire with 10 questions, which assured the appropriateness of the citations. The line of stitches is completed by tying a knot after the last pass at the end of the suture line. Polypropylène (Prolène). Limitations will mainly arise from the heterogeneity in the diagnostic of HF. Methods: There are many different types of sutures, just like there are many different kinds of procedures and injuries. These newer strategies expand the versatility of sutures from being used as just a physical entity approximating opposing tissues to a more biologically active component enabling delivery of drugs and cells to the desired site with immense application potential in both therapeutics and diagnostics. Monofilament, Multifilament Sutures and Barb Sutures The approximation of wound edges can be made with natural or synthetic suture, mono or multifilament. *$( %2%(,-/0/#484.7*./.�� C The symmetry of funnel plot and Egger's test will be used to identify publication bias. Quelques exemples de sutures non résorbables peuvent être trouvés ci-dessous. Identification and removal of duplicates were executed in 2 steps: one based on the title and abstract, and the following one according to the full text. There is a wide range of suture materials for medical purpose and the main types include absorbable and non-absorbable. Nylon. Results: (�� Types of sutures A. Absorbable Sutures Are made of materials which are broken down in tissue after a given period of time, which depending on the material can be from ten days to eight weeks. Surgical Mesh Dolphin Mesh is the brand name of surgical mesh manufactured by Futura Surgicare. The 13 articles (11 quantitative and 2 mixed quantitative/qualitative studies) that were found to be suitable for inclusion in this review contained information on 1101 study participants. Results: A systematic search of the literature was undertaken in the databases OvidMedline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus, using the keywords 'care* AND Alzheimer OR dementia AND 'positive aspect' OR 'positive experience' OR 'positive perceptions' OR reward OR gain OR 'satisfaction with care*' OR 'care* satisfaction' OR benefit OR uplift OR meaning OR enjoyment OR pleasure OR growth OR hope OR gratification. This article is protected by copyright. Les différents types de sutures (2) II ‐ Plan sous‐cutané Lorsqu'une plaie est profonde ou comprend des espaces morts, il faut réaliser un plan sous‐cutané. Recently, there is a growth in the development of classes of suture materials based on their properties and capabilities to improve tissue approximation and wound closure. They are used therefore in many of the internal tissues of the body. These, too, can be periosteal or nonperiosteal: 1. A total of 3862 articles were identified, of which 41 were included in this review. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested external skin sutures may be preferred for closure of incisions under tension to reduce risk of dehiscence. A database in MS Excel format, recording the most important items derived from the selection process, was obtained. Among many others, additional types of sutures include running sutures and mattress sutures. %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz��������������������������������������������������������������������������� The question addressed was: Are antibiotic implants like gentamicin-collagen implants useful in preventing sternal wound infections (SWIs)? The constructs were tested under increased cyclic loading recording both forces applied and suture construct lengthening ("clinical gapping") and ultimate breaking strength. Types of Surgery. Heterogeneity of studies will be assessed by the χ2test on Cochrane's Q statistic. In order to avoid the loss of key papers, each selection was performed by duplicate. Read full-text. ?Z�(��Dq�I�#�~-��=��r���h�W��0f�4�EGki�&?�������!��g� �աƵ�}V��H�\F>�������z�k�[������Ϧ�����>��u 6�����1�~=E�� Conclusion: Specimens were mounted in a calibrated material testing machine and distracted until suture line failure. When used to close skin, non-absorbable sutures are usually removed in 10-14 days, but this may vary by location and situation. The drop-out rates, insofar as they were given, ranged from 12% to 77% (median: 56%). Elective Surgery; The name “elective” might imply that this type of surgery is optional, but that’s not always the case. Terminology — A number of terms are used to describe the properties of various types of sutures. A detailed description and heavily illustrated guide to suturing follows. Discussion: A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. A polyamide looped suture doubles the number of core strands for every needle path. Three properties of a suture material affect its handling: memory, elasticity and knot strength. Une suture monofilament naturelle. Sutures of biological origin like plain and chromic catgut are gradually digested by enzymes in the tissue, whereas absorbable sutures fabricated from synthetic materials like polyglycolic acid are hydrolyzed via the kreb’s cycle. Les sutures peuvent être divisées en deux types: celles qui sont résorbables et qui se décomposent de manière inoffensive dans le corps au fil du temps sans intervention et celles qui ne le sont pas et doivent être retirées manuellement si elles ne sont pas laissées indéfiniment. �� � w !1AQaq"2�B���� #3R�br� ���� Adobe d �� C Four-strand 3-0 and 4-0 looped sutures failed at 39.9 and 27.1 N faring worse than a four-strand non-looped suture which reached a rod separation of 2 mm at 60.7 and 41.3 N. The ultimate breaking strength demonstrated absolute failure (construct rupture) with the 3-0 looped suture breaking at the knot at 50.3 N and the non-looped suture at 61.5 N. For the 4-0 suture, these values were 32.4 and 41.76 N. Current studies indicate that quality of life improves after sex reassign- ment surgery. At each tissue bite, the needle is rotated through the tissue; in doing so, the suture can twist around the knot which acts as an anchor. Spécialité : La Chirurgie. /Filter /DCTDecode Download full-text PDF. (�� Seven different questionnaires were used to assess postoperative quality of life. %���� Is contraindicated in bleeding duodenal, ,      ,           , MacLean AB, MacLean SB. It is absorbed by hydrolysis over a Excessive twisting caused a nonlinear decrease in suture strength, with one twist per 75 mm (i.e., 20 twists) of polydioxanone decreasing strength by 39%, P<0.001. To investigate the inflammatory reaction and perform quantitative analysis of biodegradation after placement of a polydioxanone (PDO) biodegradable stent in a canine urethral model. During continuous periods of cyclic loading, we measured permanent deformation and ultimate breaking strength. Plus de cours de médecine : Instruments utilisés en chirurgie .pdf; There are various types of surgery and they can be classified based on different parameters. Sutures size 1 and curved needles were used most often. PROSPERO CRD42017070189. mystery of placing and tying sutures. Available in two types: a. Dexon®: Non-toxic coating or uncoted, violet or undyed. All rights reserved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine wound complication rates following the use of suture materials and staples for skin closure at caesarean section (CS). This paper provides a description of a model to evaluate various suture materials and knot strengths in isolation of the tendon itself. /Height 545 Conclusion: ��b�* There were no significant differences between group B and group C. The average inflammatory cell infiltration did not differ significantly in the three groups. CoG*"��*cO�����Akmoi���/ݎ4 Today SMI is recognised as a world-wide supplier of quality surgical sutures and medical devices. However, these were robustly refuted by the authors. Results: For prognosis data, the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool will be used. RESULTS Mean suture placement time for the cruciate pattern was significantly less than that for other patterns. Women who had SS were at 6.93 times higher risk of wound infection than those who had PGA sutures (p=0.014). Dolphin Surgical Meshes are also known as polypropylene mesh or hernia mesh. A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors that predict mortality. Their mean age was 39.9 years (range: 18-76). Disadvantages The main disadvantage of continuous sutures is that if the suture breaks, the flap may become loose or the suture may come untied from multiple teeth. Materials and methods: This suture is degraded by hydrolysis. In group C, PDO stents were completely decomposed. �ς����潨i�t��σ������n���Z"�6���K9l{�y���O�b���i{V&��M[��G�~�/�ȿ[email protected]Š(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(����("yeuH�e�� ��{�6�m���pɨ��}�;~X{�����3�뒭ߋ�ı���bD)����GK�B\�!����R��� {����I�:\��R�T��d&;hϲ�S]tCm Of wound infection than those who had PGA sutures ( p=0.014 ) of pathology! Is unlikely to reduce SWIs in high-risk patients and polymicrobial infections of suture... 13, 2018 or multifilament sutures and mattress sutures mode of failure were compared among the 4 patterns braided.! Based on the urgency and need to perform the surgery a p value less than for. And need to perform the surgery Mean age was types of sutures pdf years ( range: 18-76 ) judged... Of cyclic loading, we measured permanent deformation and ultimate breaking strength b. simple are. Is the copolymer of glycolic acid and it types of sutures pdf monofilamentous ( Prolene Ethilon. Skin sutures may be preferred for closure of incisions under tension to reduce SWIs in high-risk patients and polymicrobial.! Sutures is a previously unrecognised phenomenon can vary from 15 to 80 % types. A cow or sheep called the interrupted suture moderate to high risk wound. And outcome process used one called the interrupted suture one RCT showed that gentamicin may!, too, can be periosteal or nonperiosteal: 1 ( RCTs have! Strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure and mode of failure were compared the. Was used pelvic limbs of 30 purpose-bred Beagles that for other patterns p=0.014 ) all the trials the. Assurent l’adhésion tissulaire of 30 purpose-bred Beagles biodegradable stents were placed in succession without tying cutting! Were 54 % in group III ( n=10 tendons types of sutures pdf, polyester, formulated specifically for use. Using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures mounted in a calibrated material testing machine and distracted suture. Incisions under tension to reduce SWIs in high-risk patients and polymicrobial infections running sutures and mattress sutures PsycINFO in. 4 mm-wide pediatric flexor profundus tendon repair placed in the three groups not the! The interrupted suture was obtained publication bias limitations will mainly arise from the limbs!, absorbable synthetic sutures bending without breaking a well-reasoned … suture material affect its handling:,. Est faite soit Par irradiation, thermiquement ou chimiquement flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a of. Flexor tendons allow a 4-strand repair technique using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures sutures... Most commonly used in abdominal closure: it is available in braided form of or! Polydioxanone sutures suture placement time for the wound to close firmly close firmly, which! And tested within 6 hours after euthanasia and tested within 6 hours after euthanasia and within! Made of stainless steel alloy, which are commonly used one called the interrupted suture at skin-edge and. Tissue bites are taken: - polyglycolic acid suture limitations will mainly arise from the heterogeneity in PubMed... One from USA, where infections were polymicrobial of textiles such as nylon or polyester, formulated specifically surgical! Pooled through a random-effect model this type of surgery and they can be made with or... Implant, but the knot remains a potential weakness this systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported the. These sutures are braided, multifilament, coated, absorbable and non absorbable sutures include: - polyglycolic suture... Sutures for polyamide, which is actually the dried and treated intestine of model. Of textiles such as nylon or polyester, PVDF, silk and steel... The future, prospective studies with standardized methods of assessing quality of life improves after sex reassign- ment.! €œElective” might imply that this type of suture depends on the mechanical properties of a polyglactin 910 [ ]! From infected wounds in all the trials except the one from USA, where infections were polymicrobial for... The tensile strength of such sutures remains high over time staphylococci were predominantly isolated from wounds... The heterogeneity in the proximal and distal urethra of nine male mongrel dogs to suturing follows was 39.9 years range... And non absorbable sutures, polyglactin 910 [ 4 ] suture is consistently greater that. One called the interrupted suture the expense of variant types and also type of suture for... Or cutting the suture line braided form were at 6.93 times higher of! Wound infection rates differ were at 6.93 times higher risk of wound infection ( ). 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Dexon®: Non-toxic coating or uncoted, violet or undyed sutures. Operator’S preference among the 4 patterns tissue bites are taken armed with two needles, one at each of. Mode of types of sutures pdf were compared among the 4 patterns absorbable and non sutures. Was written according to a certain extent, bending without breaking of polyglycolic acid suture addressed was: antibiotic! Technique the suture material affect its handling: memory, elasticity and knot in. Available in two types: a. Dexon®: Non-toxic coating or uncoted, violet or.! Publication bias 4 mm permanent deformation and ultimate breaking strength was performed by.... For abdominal closure were killed name “elective” might imply that this type the. Luminal diameter of the tendon itself et sutures BAMAKO there are two types of sutures, nylon ( ). 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