What is erythritol? Stevia is a naturally occurring sweetener that is produced from the Stevia Rebaudiana plant. There are some concerns among those who reject processed … It is a sugar alcohol most often used in chewing gums, mouthwash, cough drops and mints. The discovery of erythritol, which Stenhouse called "erythroglucin", was announced in: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (, "Determination of erythritol in fermented foods by high performance liquid chromatography", "Scientific Opinion on the safety of the proposed extension of use of erythritol (E 968) as a food additive", European Commission Directive 2008/100/EC, "Human gut microbiota does not ferment erythritol", "Gastrointestinal Disturbances Associated with the Consumption of Sugar Alcohols with Special Consideration of Xylitol: Scientific Review and Instructions for Dentists and Other Health-Care Professionals", "A case of allergic urticaria caused by erythritol", "How Is Erythritol Made? Use of sweeteners in moderation, that … Erythritol is a sugar alcohol, and it's used as a replacement for sugar. Sweetness level of Erythritol is able to achieve 60% to 70% compared to other sugars. Erythritol makes for a healthy, natural, and delicious substitution. All rights reserved. Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol, just like xylitol. Unfortunately, erythritol is not that sweet on its own, so it’s often combined in foods and beverages with other sweeteners…sometimes artificial sweeteners like aspartame, making it less than desirable. [14], Erythritol has no effect on blood sugar or blood insulin levels. Sugar alcohols like erythritol have been shown to benefit oral health in a number of ways. Its formula is C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH; specifically, one particular stereoisomer with that formula. Erythritol sweetener comes from fermenting corn or birch. Just to be clear, it is not corn or birch itself, it’s the byproduct of the fermentation process. Erythritol inhibits the growth of a specific type of oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans) known to be associated with cavities. This is why, Erythritol is regarded as a natural sugar substitute. At a content of 1.6% in beverages it is not considered to have a laxative effect. It is a polyol (sugar alcohol), and found naturally in some fermented foods and fruits. [16], Erythritol is produced industrially beginning with enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch from corn to generate glucose. The erythritol used in Splenda Brand Sweetener products is Non-GMO Project Verified and is produced by a fermentation process using non-GMO corn. What is Erythritol? Erythritol is available in granulated form. Powdered erythritol sweeteners bake in a way almost identical to sugar and are … Erythritol has about 0.2 calories per gram and is about 60% to 80% as sweet as sugar. [11] About 90% is absorbed before it enters the large intestine, and since erythritol is not digested by intestinal bacteria, the remaining 10% is excreted in the feces. Erythritol’s safety has been confirmed by numerous health authorities around the world, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and World Health Organization. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Erythritol is natural sugar replacement. It’s 70% as sweet as sugar. Check out our “What Is” series. Scottish chemist John Stenhouse discovered this polyol in 1848, and Japanese manufacturers commercialized it in 1990. Much like allulose, erythritol is a type of sweetener that is used to make many low carb and sugar-free dishes and desserts.This post will break down what exactly erythritol is—and, more importantly, all the yummy dessert recipes you can make with this sweetener! As such, there are relatively few dangers or side effects associated with this product – studies have established that it does not have negative effects on blood glucose (like actual sugar) or the minerals of the teeth . [10], Large doses can cause nausea, stomach rumbling and watery feces. There are no formal recommendations for erythritol intake. According to a 2014 study,[23] erythritol functions as an insecticide toxic to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, impairing motor ability and reducing longevity even when nutritive sugars were available. Erythritol does not impact blood glucose or insulin secretion and contributes to oral health. Erythritol is unique from other sugar alcohols because it contains zero calories. [3], Erythritol was discovered in 1848 by Scottish chemist John Stenhouse. [5], Erythritol occurs naturally in some fruit and fermented foods. [10], In small doses, erythritol does not normally cause laxative effects and gas or bloating, as are often experienced after consumption of other sugar alcohols (such as maltitol, sorbitol, xylitol, and lactitol). Erythritol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol found in fruit and fermented foods 2). Erythritol as an antioxidant. Some countries, such as Japan and the European Union (EU), label it as zero-calorie. Unlike artificial sweeteners designed in a lab, erythritol is found in nature and produced using natural processes. [7], Since 1990, erythritol has had a history of safe use as a sweetener and flavor-enhancer in food and beverage products, and is approved for use by government regulatory agencies of more than 60 countries. [25] Zerose is a tradename for erythritol. It is naturally occurring and is made from corn using enzymes and fermentation. Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol, a type of sweetener used in sugar-free foods. Because of these attributes, the FDA has recognized erythritol and other sugar alcohols as beneficial to oral health. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol which occurs naturally in fruits such as watermelons and pears. It’s occurs naturally in some fruits and fermented foods, but is more often than not man-made from GMO cornstarch. [12] In males, doses greater than 0.66 g/kg body weight and in females, doses greater than 0.8 g/kg body weight, will cause laxation,[13] and diarrhea in higher doses (over 50 grams (1.8 oz)). In addition to providing sweetness, erythritol also helps foods retain moisture. Erythritol has about 60 to 70 per­cent of the sug­ar’s sweet­ness. Erythritol is a chemical compound, a sugar alcohol (or polyol), used as a food additive and sugar substitute. Although symptoms of gastrointestinal distress have been noted with excessive intakes, erythritol is considered to be well-tolerated up to one gram per kilogram of body weight per day, which would be 68 grams of erythritol for someone weighing 150 pounds. It is naturally occurring in plants and fruits and vegetables like grapes, melons and mushrooms. Although erythritol is considered a low-FODMAP item, it can affect the absorption of fructose which can be important for those conducting a fructose challenge as part of a low-FODMAP diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed its safety in 1999 and in 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also recognized erythritol as safe. Erythritol is an artificial sweetener commonly used in low-sugar and sugar-free foods. [24], In the 19th and early 20th centuries, several synonyms were in use for erythritol: erythrol, erythrite, erythoglucin, eryglucin, erythromannite and phycite. Erythritol is a naturally-derived sugar substitute that looks and tastes very much like sugar, yet has almost no calories. This makes erythritol helpful for people with diabetes because it doesn’t provide carbohydrates, sugar or calories, and therefore does not affect blood glucose levels or insulin secretion. Erythritol (pronounced Ear-rith-ri-tall) is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol, which are water-soluble compounds that occur naturally in many fruits and vegetables. [17] Glucose is then fermented with yeast or another fungus to produce erythritol. [8], As a test of safety, scientists assessed doses for erythritol where symptoms of mild gastrointestinal upset occurred, such as nausea, excess flatus, abdominal bloating or pain, and stool frequency. [7], In the body, most erythritol is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine, and then for the most part excreted unchanged in the urine. Moreover, erythritol is non-carcinogenic, heat-stable for baking and cooking with, and it even has an antioxidant profile. Even in low amounts, erythritol can cause a slew of awful symptoms, such as stomachache, headache, and diarrhea. [19], Erythritol has a strong cooling effect (endothermic, or positive heat of solution)[20] when it dissolves in water, which is often compared with the cooling effect of mint flavors. Manufacture of a Low-Calorie Sugar Substitute", "Erythritol production by yeasts: a snapshot of current knowledge", "Enthalpies of Solution, Partial Molal Heat Capacities and Apparent Molal Volumes of Sugars and Polyols in Water", "Erythritol, a Non-Nutritive Sugar Alcohol Sweetener and the Main Component of Truvia, Is a Palatable Ingested Insecticide", "Erythritol triggers expression of virulence traits in Brucella melitensis", "A list of words whose use should be avoided in favor of the accompanying synonyms", "Cargill unveils new products featuring Zerose natural sweetener", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erythritol&oldid=998437437, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 329 to 331 °C (624 to 628 °F; 602 to 604 K), This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 11:00. Not all low-carb sweeteners are created equal. [21] Erythritol has a pKa of 13.903 at 18 °C.[22]. Naturally, Erythritol contained in soy sauce, sake, wine, grapes, pears, and watermelons. It’s also found in mushrooms and fermented foods like beer, cheese, sake, soy sauce and wine. Erythritol is a calorie-free sweetener and sugar alternative. [9], Under U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling requirements, it has a caloric value of 0.2 kilocalories per gram (95% less than sugar and other carbohydrates). The keto diet relies on keeping carbs low. However most erythritol is man-made from cornstarch. Sugar alcohols are actually carbohydrates (and no, they won't make you drunk), according to the FDA. Therefore, sugar alcohols like erythritol do not promote tooth decay. The benefits of using erythritol as an added sweetener in foods include the fact that it is nontoxic, has antioxidant properties, provides few calories, doesn't contribute to tooth decay and has little effect on blood sugar and insulin levels. This natural sweetener has practically zero calories and does not affect blood sugar or insulin levels. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol naturally present in some fruits and fermented foods such as grapes, pears, wine, cheese, and mushrooms. [18] A genetically engineered mutant form of Yarrowia lipolytica, a yeast, has been optimized for erythritol production by fermentation, using glycerol as a carbon source and high osmotic pressure to increase yields up to 62%. Its lack of calories makes erythritol unique among sugar alcohols, most of which have around two calories per gram (for reference, sugar has about four calories per gram). This sug­ar alco­hol that can enhance and mask taste, it can retain mois­ture and act as bulk­ing ingre­di­ent and stabilizer. It provides only about 6% of the calories found in an equal amount of sugar. Primarily, because they are noncariogenic: in other words, they don’t contribute to cavity formation. [12] Rarely, erythritol can cause allergic hives (urticaria). Erythritol is a sugar alcohol used as a low-calorie sweetener. Erythritol is less sweet than sugar, it provides between 70 and 80% of its sweetness. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Erythritol was first discovered in 1848 by a Scottish chemist named John Stenhouse. Erythritol is 60–70% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), yet it is almost noncaloric[1] and does not affect blood sugar[2] or cause tooth decay. The presence of erythritol in the placentas of goats, cattle, and pigs has been proposed as an explanation for the accumulation of Brucella bacteria found at these sites. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol with potential applications as a low-calorie, bulk sweetener. Erythritol is a safe, keto-friendly sugar alcohol to try. What Is Erythritol? Instead, it’s eliminated unchanged from the body through the urine. Erythritol is better tolerated than sorbitol or mannitol, so foods that contain erythritol do not need to carry that warning label. Erythritol safety has been reviewed and confirmed by health authorities around the world. Like all sugar alcohols, it is less sweet and lower in calories than sucrose, and it does not promote tooth decay.Gum and candy made with erythritol rather than sugar is better for oral health. In 1950 it was found in blackstrap molasses that was fermented by yeast, and it became commercialized as a sugar alcohol in the 1990s in Japan. Commonly used plants in extracting erythritol for commercial purposes are corn and birch. [5], Erythritol is tooth-friendly; it cannot be metabolized by oral bacteria, so it does not contribute to tooth decay. As mentioned above, Erythritol was designed to avoid the vast majority of side-effects associated with other sweeteners, particularly other alcohol-sugars. Interested in learning the basics of other food, nutrition and health topics? [8] For safe use in children, a scientific panel for the European Food Safety Authority recommended the upper limit content per food or beverage serving was 0.6 grams per kg body weight. Therefore, erythritol is keto, low carb and has zero net carbs. Some have estimated erythritol consumption from whole foods in the U.S. to be around 25 milligrams per person per day, and more than 100 milligrams per person per day in Japan. Erythritol is a major source of some fruits and fermented foods. sugar alcohol (otherwise known as a ‘polyol’) that we can derive from sugars and starches in plants Erythritol: Benefits and Potential Side Effects of the Keto-Friendly Sweetener | Livestrong.com It does­n’t sound exhil­a­rat­ing, but the fact is that ery­thri­tol is a very ver­sa­tile ingre­di­ent. It carries more than 50% sweetness of sugar and cools at the melting point.The most commendable aspects of this alcohol sugar are that it contains 0.25g of calories, 0 GI, taste similar to sugar, and does not spike sugar. Erythritol occurs naturally in a variety of foods (e.g., grapes, mushrooms, pears and watermelon) and some fermented foods and beverages like beer, cheese, sake, soy sauce and wine. It is NOT an artificial sweetener like aspartame or Splenda. [4] Erythritol was first isolated in 1852. For those following a low Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet, food sources of erythritol are monitored because erythritol is a type of polyol. My opinion about the use of sweeteners and, specifically, erythritol: It is suitable to consume in a ketogenic diet and in any diet "low carb", (low in carbohydrates). In addition to whole foods, erythritol is commercially produced for use in baked goods, beverages, candies, chewing gums, chocolates and tabletop sweetener packets. However, the versions of this white crystalline product that we see in marketplaces are manmade. [15][16] and therefore may become an effective substitute for sugar for diabetics. It is designed to replace sugar and calories to create “diet-friendly” results. It’s 70-80% as sweet as table sugar and has a mild flavor. [6] At the industrial level, it is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast, Moniliella pollinis. The product is then filtered and dried into crystals. Erythritol is found naturally in fruits like grapes, peaches, pears and watermelon. What is Erythritol ? [8], Nutritional labeling of erythritol in food products varies from country to country. Other methods such as electrochemical synthesis are in development. Some sugar alcohols like xylitol and erythritol are also considered nonacidogenic, which means they help decrease the amount of acid produced by the oral bacteria that can damage tooth enamel. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol, just like other well-known sweeteners such as maltitol and xylitol. While the safety of erythritol and other sugar alcohols is is well-documented, some sugar alcohols, when eaten in excessive amounts, can cause gastrointestinal discomfort, including gas, bloating and diarrhea. It is also commercially produced by fermentation from a simple sugar derived from corn, called dextrose. Erythritol is a chemical compound, a sugar alcohol (or polyol), used as a food additive and sugar substitute. It's a type of carbohydrate called a … WHAT IS ERYTHRITOL? [3][16] In addition, erythritol, similarly to xylitol, has antibacterial effects against streptococci bacteria, reduces dental plaque, and may be protective against tooth decay. With zilch for calories and seemingly less of a threat than aspartame, erythritol has gained popularity as a sweetener. Erythritol is preferentially used by the Brucella bacteria spp. [8] Beverage categories for its use are coffee and tea, liquid dietary supplements, juice blends, soft drinks, and flavored water product variations, with foods including confections, biscuits and cookies, tabletop sweeteners, and sugar-free chewing gum. Erythritol is absorbed in the small intestine, but it is not metabolized. Erythritol is derived through the process of fermentation, similar to the wine and liquor creating process. The cooling effect is present only when erythritol is not already dissolved in water, a situation that might be experienced in an erythritol-sweetened frosting, chocolate bar, chewing gum, or hard candy. Erythritol’s contributions to health go beyond the potential to replace calories from carbohydrates and sugar in our diet. Erythritol is a great choice for the keto diet. As a result, foods that contain the sugar alcohols sorbitol or mannitol must include a warning on their label about potential laxative effects. The name “sugar alcohol” may be misleading though, as it has nothing to do with sugar nor alcohol as we know it and is just a way to categorize the chemical structure of a compound. Chemically, it belongs to sugar family alcohols and just like other members of the family it also acts as a sweetening agent in food items. Its formula is C 4H 10O 4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH; specifically, one particular stereoisomer with that formula. [26], InChI=1S/C4H10O4/c5-1-3(7)4(8)2-6/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4+, InChI=1/C4H10O4/c5-1-3(7)4(8)2-6/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4+, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their. Erythritol is relatively a new entry in sugar substitute market; it is a low-calorie substitute of sugar used for sweetening of sugar-free or low sugar edible items. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol naturally found in small amounts in some fruits and fermented foods. [8] The upper limit of tolerance was 0.78 and 0.71 grams per kg body weight in adults and children, respectively. Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with sweetening properties that is used by the food industry as a food additive 1). Known as a sugar alcohol due to its chemical structure resembling an alcohol, erythritol is available in crystal-like appearance just as sugar. It is available in granulated and powdered forms. The cooling effect of erythritol is very similar to that of xylitol and among the strongest cooling effects of all sugar alcohols. Erythritol has been used in Japan since 1990 in candies, chocolate, yogurt, fillings, jellies, jams, beverages, and as a sugar substitute. It’s a type of sugar alcohol, but don’t let the name confuse you — it contains no sugar, and no ethanol (the kind of alcohol you drink). Erythritol (pronounced Ear-rith-ri-tall) is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol, which are water-soluble compounds that occur naturally in many fruits and vegetables. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that naturally occurs in peaches, melons, pears and grapes. Erythritol has the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) from the FDA and is widely used in many other countries like Japan, the European Union, Mexico, and Canada. [8], Erythritol is absorbed rapidly into the blood, with peak amounts occurring in under two hours; the majority of an oral dose (80 to 90%) is excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours. It is naturally occurring and is made from corn using enzymes and fermentation. It’s used as a zero-calorie sweetener to help replace calories from carbohydrates and sugars in packaged foods and beverages. Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol fermented from sugars and found in many vegetables and fruit. It is, therefore, a by-product of the fermentation process. Two areas where erythritol is known for its positive effects are oral health and blood sugar. The FDA has not made its own determination regarding the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of erythritol, but has accepted the conclusion that erythritol is GRAS as submitted to it by several food manufacturers. Consumer Surveys: A Continued Look at COVID-19’s Impact on Food Purchasing, Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Safety. Like most sugar alcohols, erythritol is not as sweet as sugar: It’s only about 60-80 percent as sweet. Japan approved erythritol for use in foods in 1990. About 10% enters the colon. © 2021 International Food Information Council. This includes wine, sake, beer, watermelons, pears, grapes, and soy sauce. If you prefer to avoid corn, erythritol made with birch is a good option, but is more expensive. It is also commercially produced by fermentation from a simple sugar derived from corn, called dextrose. It’s pronounced, (a-rith-ri-tall). Some scientists also detect it as naturally occurring in low levels in the human body. Though it sounds new, erythritol (ear-RITH-ri-tall) has been around as long as grapes, peaches, pears, watermelon, and mushrooms. Erythritol is also commercially produced using fermentation. Erythritol is a type of carbohydrate called a sugar alcohol, or polyol. 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